Arkansas Citizen Participation in Government Act.16-63-502

Dec 27, 2005

Creole: The Oldest American Minority of The New World and Beyond

After the American take-over of the Louisiana territory, "Louisiana Creoles of color" were then stripped of their 1803 Louisiana Purchase Treaty rights, property, and basic freedom, and were forcefully subjugated into slavery and third class Jim Crow citizen status.

Some fled to Mexico and the Caribbean areas rather than subjugate themselves. But most of these people of color stayed on and managed to survive throughout this period, contributing much to the development of the Creole National Territory of Louisiana.

As time has gone by, the government and decision makers of the now divided Creole National Louisiana Territories, continue to equate "Creoles" as second-class citizens. They continue in refusing to acknowledge their cultural presence and their contributions to the Creole National Territory of Louisiana.


In 1946, William Gilbert, a researcher for the Library of Congress, presented the first comprehensive survey covering the phenomenon of “little races” or, as Gilbert considered them, remnant Indian groups in the eastern U.S. He estimated that there were at least 50,000 persons who were “complex mixtures in varying degrees of white, Indian, and Negro blood,” and listed ten major tri-racial groups with several related groups. These included:

1. Brass Ankles and allied groups in South Carolina, including Red Bones, Red Legs, Turks, Marlboro Blues, and others.

2. Cajans and Creoles of Alabama and Mississippi.

3. Croatans of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia.

4. Guineas of West Virginia and Maryland. (Other names included “West Hill Indians, “ ”Cecil Indians,” and “Guinea niggers.”)

5. Issues of Amherst and Rockingham Counties, Virginia.

6. Jackson Whites of New York and New Jersey.

7. Melungeons of the Southern Appalachians.

8. Moors and Nanticokes of Delaware and New Jersey.

9. Red Bones of Louisiana.

10.Wesorts of southern Maryland.

Essays on the Color Line and the One-Drop Rule